Performers include any individuals whose performance consists in the interpretation of copyrighted works of arts (e.g. an actor reads a text, a dancer performs a choreography, a singer sings a song). Most often performers include actors, singers, dancers, musicians, conductors or theatre directors. Acrobats are also considered performers even though they do not perform a copyrighted work of art. Performers do not include technical, production and administrative staff such as an artistic, operational or technical manager, make-up artists, wig stylist, technicians or sound engineers or lighting technicians. The outcome of the work of make-up artists, wig stylists and sometimes even sound engineers or lighting technicians may amount to copyrighted work under certain conditions (provided that their work is creative and unique).
Artistic performance enjoys a similar degree of protection as copyrighted works; performers hold absolute rights to their work. Performers enjoy moral and economic rights similar, but not identical, to the rights of authors. Economic rights of performers include, without limitation, their exclusive right to communicate the performance to the public, to make an audio, visual or audiovisual recording of such a performance, make the performance accessible online or broadcast it. For joint performance of a single work (e.g. by an orchestra, choir or dancing group), the economic rights are exercised through a single person called a common representative of the artistic ensemble (e.g. a choir leader) and a collective license to the performance is granted.