All exceptions to copyright are subject to the three-step test under the Berne Convention. To comply with the test, any limitation or exception to copyright may only be used in special cases (i.e. it is not the standard situation), provided that this does not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author.
The following overview of the exceptions is far from being exhaustive; the Copyright Act defines many more exceptions but those listed below are the most relevant ones for live performance and visual arts.
Whoever quotes in his or her work excerpts from a published work by other authors in a reasonable extent does not infringe copyright provided that he or she acknowledges the name of the author (if possible and if the author is not anonymous), name of the work and the source. Only excerpts, but not entire works, may be quoted (this does not apply to short works such as four-verse poems which may be quoted in full in scientific works and literary criticism, but not in artistic works). In a similar vein, published works may be used for scientific and teaching purposes during lectures or school classes. This is, however, strictly limited to the course of such a lecture or class. Therefore, this exception does not apply to including and using texts and illustrations in a textbook (irrespective of the fact whether the textbook will be sold for profit, or not).